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training as the other things. Generally speaking, a half-hour lesson might be apportioned thus:

Technical exercises, scales, &c. 5 minutes ;

Studies - - - - 10 minutes ;

Pieces - - - - 10 minutes ;

Sight-reading, &c. - - 5 minutes.

These times are, of course, only approximate, and must be subject to variation, so that whatever point needs specially stressing may be thoroughly dealt with. If one item has to be omitted at one week's lesson, it may be taken first the following week. It may even be necessary, and is in fact often desirable, to spend almost the whole of the lesson dealing with one particular point ; this applies especially when the pupil is being introduced to some new point of technique. As already stated, anything new must be thoroughly understood before the pupil is left to practise it by himself, and this, in some cases, may take a considerable time. Even if the whole lesson has to be spent on the one matter, it must be done.

In the case of elementary pupils it is desirable, if at all possible, to hear everything that has been prepared during the previous week ; but more advanced students may safely be left to work at things on their own for a longer period. If a pupil has, say, two big works in practice, it may be impossible to hear more than one of them at a lesson, in which case they may be taken alternately. But however much the normal programme may need to be modified, the pupil should not be left too long without guidance and criticism on any particular part of his work, unless he has been deliberately told to prepare it entirely without help.

Some teachers think it definitely undesirable to play over new pieces to their pupils before the latter start to practise them. Actually this is a matter of minor importance. If the teacher wishes the pupil to prepare a work without help at all, such demonstration is unnecessary, as it is also in the case of advanced pupils who can be trusted to rely on themselves to a great extent. But elementary pupils are often helped by hearing their new work. It gives them some idea of what they have to do, and the kind of performance at which they must ultimately aim. There is also no harm in pupils " running through " new pieces before they start to practise them in earnest. But only one " run through " should be per- mitted, so that the pupil may have some idea of the general lay-out of the piece, and of the difficulties which he has to overcome. If too much " running through " is indulged in, there is always a risk that mistakes may take firm root, and cause much trouble before they are eradicated.

Here a warning may appropriately be given on the subject of teachers playing to their pupils. When taking the pupil through his work at a lesson it is desirable that the teacher should play as little as possible. The pupil must be made to use his own brains to the fullest extent, and the teacher who invariably shows the pupil how to overcome faults by mere demonstration at the instrument is forgetting this important point, and his pupils will inevitably tend to learn

To be continued


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